)  Landfill—carefully designed structure built into or on top of the ground in which trash is isolated from the surrounding environment (groundwater, air, rain). This isolation is accomplished with a bottom liner and daily covering of soil.  Sanitary landfill—land fill that uses a clay liner to isolate the trash from the environment  Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill—landfill that uses a synthetic (plastic) liner to isolate the trash from the environment  The purpose of a landfill is to bury the trash in such a way that it will be isolated from groundwater, will be kept dry and will not be in contact with air. Under these conditions, trash will not decompose (腐烂) much. A landfill is not like a compost pile, where the purpose is to bury trash in such a way that it will decompose quickly.  Proposing the Landfill  For a landfill to be built, the operators have to make sure that they follow certain steps. In most parts of the world, there are regulations that govern where a landfill can be placed and how it can operate. The whole process begins with someone proposing the landfill.  In the United States, taking care of trash and building landfills are local government responsibilities. Before a city or other authority can build a landfill, an environment impact  study must be done on the proposed site to determine:  the area of land necessary for the landfill  the composition of the underlying soil and bedrock  the flow of surface water over the site  the impact of the proposed landfill on the local environment and wildlife  the historical value of the proposed site  Building the Landfill   Once the environmental impact study is complete, the permits are granted and the funds have been raised, then construction begins. First, access roads to the landfill site must be built if they do not already exist. There roads will be used by construction equipment, sanitation (环卫) services and the general public. After roads have been built, digging can begin. In the North Wake Country Landfill, the landfill began 10 feet below the road surface.  What Happens to Trash in a Landfill。A landfill, such as the North Wake County Landfill, must be open and available every day. Customers are typically municipalities and construction companies, although residents may also use the landfill.  Near the entrance of the landfill is a recycling center where residents can drop off recyclable materials (aluminum cans, glass bottles, newspapers and paper products). This helps to reduce the amount of material in the landfill. Some of these materials are banned from landfills by law because they can be recycled.  As customers enter the site, their trucks are weighed at the scale house. Customers are charged tipping fees for using the site. The tipping fees vary from $10 to $40 per ton. These fees are used to pay for operation costs. The North Wake County Landfill has an operating budget of approximately $4.5 million, and part of that comes from tipping fees.   Along the site, there are drop-off stations for materials that are not wanted or legally banned by the landfill. A multi-material drop-off station is used for tires, motor oil, lead-acid batteries. Some of these materials can be recycled.  In addition, there is a household hazardous waste drop-off station for chemicals (paints, pesticides, other chemicals) that are banned from the landfill. These chemicals are disposed of by private companies. Some paints can be recycled and some organic chemicals can be burned in furnaces or power plants.  Other structures alongside the landfill are the borrowed area that supplies the soil for the landfill, the runoff collection pond and methane (甲烷) station.  Landfills are complicated structures that, when properly designed and managed, serve an important purpose. In the future, new technologies called bioreactors will be used to speed the breakdown of trash in landfills and produce more methane.  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。11. A) The man hates to lend his tools to other people.  B) The man hasn't finished working on the bookshelf.  C) The tools have already been returned to the woman.  D) The tools the man borrowed from the woman are missing.  12. A) Save time by using a computer. B) Buy her own computer.  C) Borrow Martha's computer. D) Stay home and complete her paper.  13. A) He has been to Seattle many times. B) He has chaired a lot of conferences.  C) He holds a high position in his company. D) He lived in Seattle for many years.  14. A) Teacher and student. B) Doctor and patient. ]  C) Manager and office worker. D) Travel agent and customer.  15. A) She knows the guy who will give the lecture.  B) She thinks the lecture might be informative.  C) She wants to add something to her lecture.  D) She'll finish her report this weekend.  16. A) An art museum. C) A college campus.  B) A beautiful park. D) An architectural exhibition.  17. A) The houses for sale are of poor quality.  B) The houses are too expensive for the couple to buy.  C) The housing developers provide free trips for potential buyers.  D) The man is unwilling to take a look at the houses for sale.   18. A) Talking about sports. C) Reading newspapers.  B) Writing up local news. D) Putting up advertisements.  Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.  19. A) The benefits of strong business competition.  B) A proposal to lower the cost of production.  C) Complaints about the expense of modernization.   D) Suggestions concerning new business strategies.  20. A) It cost much more than its worth. B) It should be brought up-to-date.  C) It calls for immediate repairs. D) It can still be used for a long time.  21. A) The personnel manager should be fired for inefficiency.  B) A few engineers should be employed to modernize the factory.  C) The entire staff should be retrained.  D) Better-educated employees should be promoted.  22. A) Their competitors have long been advertising on TV.  B) TV commercials are less expensive.  C) Advertising in newspapers alone is not sufficient.  D) TV commercials attract more investments.  Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.  23. A) Searching for reference material. B) Watching a film of the 1930s'.  C) Writing a course book. D) Looking for a job in a movie studio.  24. A) It's too broad to cope with. C) It's controversial.  B) It's a bit outdated. D) It's of little practical value.  25. A) At the end of the online catalogue. B) At the Reference Desk.  C) In The New York Times. D) In the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature.  Section B  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。


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【网络综合 - 英语署孢颜匈口语】 I: Do youhave any questionsyou want to ask?嗑捭蟮阁 A: Yes, I'd like to know if there would be any future opportunities for specific trainingAny other questions? A: When will I know your decision? I: We'll give you our decision in a few days. How can we get in touch with you? A: I can be reachedresume. I: Thank you for your interest in our company. A: Thank you, sir. I expect to hear fromyou as soon as possible. I: Would you please let the next



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